Thursday, July 30, 2020

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopment begins in the early prenatal stage with a complex neurological development that begins with proliferation of radial glia and neurons. These continue to develop in the postnatal years. This process is not complete until almost 3 years of age.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are disabilities associated primarily with the functioning of the neurological system and brain. Examples of neurodevelopmental disorders in children include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, learning disabilities, intellectual disability (also known as mental retardation), conduct disorders, cerebral palsy, and impairments in vision and hearing.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are highly heritable, frequently co-occur, predominantly persist throughout life and are commonly associated with adverse psychological and psychosocial outcomes for both the individual and their family.

Children with neurodevelopmental disorders can experience difficulties with language and speech, motor skills, behavior, memory, learning, or other neurological functions.

Maturation of the central nervous system is critical in the development of neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell pruning or synapse pruning, which occurs between the ages of 5 – 20 years appears to be a critical process whereby if increased may be linked with childhood onset schizophrenia and if decreased may be linked with autism.

The exact prevalence rates of neurodevelopmental disorders vary considerably between Neurodevelopmental Disorders countries and are generally higher in the United States of America than in the United Kingdom. Although it was historically considered that children ‘grew out of’ most neurodevelopmental disorders excepting Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability, there is now good evidence that the impact of neurodevelopmental disorders is lifelong for many individuals.
Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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